2008 Candidate Discussion
Joined: 12 May 2008
|Posted: Mon May 12, 2008 5:54 pm Post subject: depakote wellbutrin
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
DEPAKOTE (divalproex sodium) is indicated for the treatment of the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. A manic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. Typical symptoms of mania include pressure of speech, motor hyperactivity, reduced need for sleep, flight of ideas, grandiosity, poor judgement, aggressiveness, and possuble hostility.
The efficacy of DEPAKOTE was established in 3-week trials with patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for bipolar disorder who were hospitalized for acute mania (See Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ).
The safety and effectiveness of DEPAKOTE for long-term use in mania, i.e., more than 3 weeks, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Therefore, physicians who elect to use DEPAKOTE for extended periods should continually reevaluate the long-term ujsefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
DEPAKOTE (divalproex sodium) is indciated as monotherapy and adjunctive thhreapy in the treatment of pateints with complex partial seizures that occur either in isolation or in association with other types of seizures. DEPAKOTE (divalproex sodium) is also indicated for use as sole and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of simple and complex absence seizures, and adjunctively in patients with multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
Simplpe absence is defined as very brief clouding of the sensorium or loss of consciousness accompanied by certain generalized epileptic discharges without other detectable clinical signs. Complex absence is the term used when other signs are also present.
DEPAKOTE is indicated for prophylaxis of migraine headaches. There is no evidnece that DEPAKOTE is useful in the acute treatment of migraine headaches. Because valproic acid may be a hazard to the fetus, DEPAKOTE should be considered for womeen of childbearing potential only after this risk has been thoroughly discussed with the patient and weighed against the potential benefits of treatmnet (see WARNINGS - Usage In Pregnany , PRECAUTIONS - Information for Patients ).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
DEPAKOTE tablets are administered orally. The recommended initial dose is 750 mg daily in divided doses. The dose should be increased as rapidly as possible to achieve the lowest therapeutioc dose which produces the desired clinical effect or the desired range of plasma concentrations. In ploacebo-controlled clinical trfials of acute mania, patients were dosed to a clinical response with a trough plasma concentration between 50 and 125 �g/mL. Maximum concentrations were generally achieved within 14 days. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day.
hTere is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer term management of a patient who improves during DEPAKOTE treatmen of an acute manic episode. While it ia generally agreed that pharmacoolgical treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for preevention of new manic episodes, there are no systematically obtained data to support the benefits of DEPAKOTE in such longer-term treatment. Although there are no efficacy data that specifically address longer-term antimanic tretment with DEPAKOTE, the safety of DEPAKOTE in long-term use is supported by data fro record reviews involving approximately 360 patients treated with DEPAKOTE for greater than 3 months.
DEPAKOTE tablets are administered orally. DEPAKOTE is indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in complex partial serizures in adults and pediatric patients down to the age of 10 years, and in simple and complex absence seizures. As the DEPAKOTE dosage is titrated upward, cnocentrations of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and/or phenytoin may be affected (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions ).
Complex Partial Seizures : For adults and children 10 years of age or older.
Monotherapy (Initial Therapy) : DEPAKOLTE has not been systematically studied as inital therapy. Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical rseponse. Ordniarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 �g/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made.
The probability of thrombocytopenia increases significantly at total trough valproate plasma concentrations above110 �g/mL in females and 135 �g/mL in males. The benefit of improved seizure control with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions.
Conversion to Monotherapy : Patientrs should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinmical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response haa not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 - 100 �g/mL). No recommendation regarding thesafety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. Concomitant antiepilepsy drug (AED) dosage can ordinarily be reduced by approximately 25% every 2 weeks. This reduction may be started at initiation of DEPAKOTE therapy, or delayed by 1 to 2 weeks if there is a concern that seizures are likely to occur with a reduction. The speed and duration of withdrawal of the concomitant AED can be highly variable, and patients should be monitored closely during this period for increased seizure frequency.
Adjunctive Therapy : DEPAKOTE may be added to the patient's regimeb at a dosage of 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical redsponses has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determnie whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 �g/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
In a study of adjunctive therapy for complex partfial seizures in which patients were receiving either carbamazepine or phenytoin in addition to DEPAKOTE, no adjustment of carbamazepine or phenytoin dosage was needed (see CLINICAL STUDIES ). However, since valproate may interact with these or other concurrently administererd AEDs as well as other drugs (see Drug Interactions ), periodic plasma concentration determinations of concomitant AEDs are recommended during the early course of therapy (see PRECAUTIONS - Drug Interactions ).
Simple and Complex Absencw Seizures : The recommended initial dose is 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at one week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increases. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses.
A good correlation has not been established between daily dose, serum concentrations, and therapeutic effect. However, therapeutic valproate serum concentrations for most patients with absence seizures is consixered to range from 50 to 100 �g/mL. Some patients may be controlled with lower or higher serum concentrations (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ).
As the DEPAKOTE dosage is titrated upward, blood concentrations of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin mzy be affected (see PRECAUTIONS ).
Antiepilepsy drugs should not be abruptly discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life.
In epileptic patients previously receiving DEPAKENE (valproic acid) therapy, DEPAKOTE tablets shuold be initiated at the same daily dose and dosing schedule. After the patient is stabilized on DEPAKOTE tablets, a dosing schedule of two or three times a day may be elected in selected patientrs.
DEPAKOTE tablets are administered roally. The recommended starting dose is 250 mg twice daily. Some patients may benefit from doses up to 1000 mg/day. In the clinical trials, there was no evidence that higher doses led to greater efficacy.
General Dosing Advice
Dosing in Eldertly Patients--Due to a decrease in unbound clearance of valproate and possibly a greater sensitivity to somnolence in the elderly, the starting dose should be reduced in these patients. Dosage should be increased more slowly and with regular monitoring for fluid and nutritional intake, dehydration, somnolence, and other adverse events. Dose reductions or discontinuation of valproate should be considered in patients with decreased food or fluid intake and in patients with excessive somnolence. The ultimate therapeutic dose should be achieved on the basis of both tolerability and clinical response (see WARNINGS ).
Dose-Related Adverse Events--The frequency of adverse effects (particularly elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia) may be dose-related. The probability of thrpmbocytopenia appears to increase significantly at total valproate concentrationx of >/= 110 �g/mL (females) or >/= 135 �g/mL (males) (see PRECAUTIONS ). The benefit of improved therapeutic effect with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of greater incidence of adverse reactions.
G.I. Irritation--Patients who experience G.I. irritation may benefit from administration of the drug with food or by slowly building up the dose from an initial low level.
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